# Net Ionic Equation Calculator

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### Net Ionic Equation

In chemistry there are different kinds of chemical equations. A chemical equation is a symbolic representations of a chemical reaction between two or more compounds. The reactants are written on the left hand side and the products are written on the right hand side of the equation. During a chemical reaction there are reactants that react and the products are formed. The reactants are the compounds which react chemically and due to their combinations the products are formed.

Shown above is a sample representation of a chemical equation, where the reactants combine and products are formed. The subscript in the equation is the state of the compounds reacting. The physical state of the compounds reacting in a chemical reaction can either be solids (s), liquids (l), gases (g) or aqueous (aq). A single arrow represents a forward reaction or an irreversible equation. A double arrow represents a reversible equation.
The following are some examples of chemical equations:

Here in the above equation the hydrogen and oxygen atoms are combining to produce the water molecules.

The above equation shows the formation of ammonia. Here the nitrogen and the hydrogen gases combine to form the ammonium molecule. For writing a balanced chemical equation there are coefficient written in front of the compounds.
Complete Molecular Equation: A complete molecular equation is where all the reactants and products are written in their chemical formulas. This means compounds participating in the reaction are represented in their neutral state.
Here is an example for a reaction expressed in the form of a complete molecular equation.
When Barium chloride reacts with Sulfuric acid in an aqueous state it forms a precipitate of Barium sulfate and hydrogen chloride. This reaction can be represented as a complete molecular equation as shown below:

### Writing the chemical formula:

A chemical formula is a symbolic representation of a compound. A compound can be formed by the combination of different charged metals and non-metals. These charged ions can be classified into two types the positive ions and the negative ions.
The positively charged ions are called as the cations. These cations are formed when an atom loses the electrons.
The negatively charged ions are called as the anion. These anions are formed when an atom gains electrons.
 Name of the cation Symbol Hydrogen H+ Sodium Na+ Potassium K+ Silver Ag+ Copper (I) Cu+ Magnesium Mg2+ Calcium Ca2+ Zinc Zn2+ Iron (II) Fe2+ Copper(II) Cu2+ Aluminum Al3+ Iron (III) Fe3+

 Name of the Anion Symbol Hydride H- Chloride Cl- Bromide Br- Iodide I- Sulphide S2- Nitride N3-

 Name of the polyatomic ion Symbol Ammonium NH4+ Hydroxide OH- Nitrite NO2- Nitrate NO3- Carbonate CO32- Hydrogen carbonate HCO3- Sulphite SO32- Sulphate SO42- Phosphate PO43-

The ionic substances are formed by the combination of these metallic and non-metallic ions. The ionic substances when dissolved in aqueous solution ionizes in its respective ions. If an ionic compound is insoluble then it’s written as a full formula it cannot be dissociated into ions.
For example, Sodium Hydroxide is formed by the sodium cation and hydroxide anion. This can be thus shown as below:

Another example is Magnesium chloride which in aqueous state can be ionized into magnesium cation and chlorine anion. This can be expressed as shown below:

After understanding how the given ionic compound can dissociate into positive and negatively charged ions. This concept is applied for writing the net ionic equation.

### Rules for writing the net ionic equations:

·         Write a chemical reaction in the form of a chemical equation with the reactants and products written in their respective chemical formulas.
·         Now balance the chemical equation.
·         The state in which all the compounds are reacting is mentioned in the chemical equation.
·         Now change the compounds in the equation into cations and anions according to their ability to disassociate.
·         All the ionic compounds disassociate into ions in the aqueous state except for the compounds which form precipitate.
·         The compounds that are non-soluble in aqueous state can be written as the molecular formulas.
·         Once the equation is changed from the molecular form to the ionic form, the common ions on both the sides are cancelled.
·         Hence the reduced reaction obtained after removing the common unchanged ions on both sides of the equation gives the net ionic equation.
The spectator ions:
As mentioned above, there are some unchanged ions present both in the reactants and the products. These unchanged ions are named as the spectator ions. To obtain a net ionic equation these spectator ions need to be eliminated from the equation.
·         To identify the spectator ions in a chemical reaction, the ionic compounds need to be written in the form of ions depending on their solubility in aqueous solutions.
·          It is very important to write the right disassociation of the cation and anion for the given ionic compound in the reaction.
·         Later when the molecular equation is changed into ionic equation, eliminate the spectator ions on both the sides.
In some equations the ions in the reactants and products can be the same. This makes all the ions spectator ions. Hence there is no net ionic equation.
Complete molecular equation to net ionic equation:
Bringing together every concept mentioned above, the following examples will demonstrate the change of the complete molecular equation to the net ionic equation. Mostly double displacement reactions, precipitation reactions and neutralization reactions are the best examples for the ionic equations.
When silver nitrate reacts with sodium chloride it produces silver chloride and sodium nitrate.
This chemical reaction can be written in the form the complete molecular equation as shown below:

In the aqueous solution AgNO3 ionizes into Ag+ cation and NO3- anion. Whereas NaCl ionizes as Na+ cation and Cl- anion. In the products AgCl remains in the solid state so it cannot be ionized further. Whereas NaNO3 ionizes into Na+ cation and NO3- anion in the aqueous state. This can be represented as an ionic equation as follows:
Ag+(aq) + NO3- (aq) + Na+ (aq) + Cl- (aq ) à AgCl  (s) + Na+ (aq) + NO3- (aq)
In the ionic equation written above Na+ cation and NO3- anion are the spectator ions as they are present on both sides of the equation. Now eliminating the spectator ions on both sides of the equation gives the following net ionic equation:

When calcium chloride reacts with sodium carbonate it produces calcium carbonate and sodium chloride. This chemical reaction can be written in the form the complete molecular equation as shown below:

In the aqueous solution CaCl2 ionizes into Ca2+ cation and Cl- anion. Whereas Na2CO3 ionizes as Na+ cation and CO32- anion. In the products CaCO3 is in the solid state so it cannot be ionized further. Whereas, NaCl ionizes into Na+ cation and Cl- anion. This can be represented as an ionic equation as follows:
Ca2+ (aq) + Cl- (aq) + Na+ (aq) + CO32- (aq) à CaCO3 (s) + Na+ (aq) + Cl- (aq)
In the ionic equation written above Na+ cation and Cl- anion are the spectator ions as they are present on both sides of the equation. Now eliminating the spectator ions on both sides of the equation gives the following net ionic equation:

When copper sulfate reacts with sodium hydroxide it produces copper hydroxide and sodium sulfate. This chemical reaction can be written in the form the complete molecular equation as shown below:

In the aqueous solution CuSO4 ionizes into Cu2+ cation and SO42- anion. Whereas NaOH ionizes as Na+ cation and OH- anion. In the products Cu(OH)2 is in the solid state so it cannot be ionized further. Whereas, Na2SO4 ionizes into Na+ cation and SO42- anion. This can be represented as an ionic equation as follows:
Cu2+ (aq) + SO42- (aq) + Na+ (aq) + OH- (aq) à Cu(OH)2 (s) + Na+ (aq) + SO42- (aq)
In the ionic equation written above Na+ cation and SO42- anion are the spectator ions as they are present on both sides of the equation. Now eliminating the spectator ions on both sides of the equation gives the following net ionic equation:

Therefore, applying this concept any given molecular equation consisting of ionic compounds can be changed into net ionic equation.